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Alexandria is the second capital of Egypt. Its capital was ancient, the capital of Alexandria and its largest city, located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea about 55 km northwest of the Nile Delta, bordered to the north by the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Mariout to the 71 km on the Cairo- It is bordered on the east by Abu Qir Bay and Edco city, and Sidi Kreir area westward until 36:30 km on the Alexandria-Matruh highway.
Alexandria has many distinctive landmarks. It has Egypt’s largest seaports (Alexandria Port and Dekheila Port). The city has about 80% of Egypt’s total imports and exports. It also houses the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina, which has a capacity of more than 8 million books. Museums and archaeological sites such as Qaitbay Castle, Al-Sawari and others, Alexandria has a population of 4,123,869 (2006 census) engaged in commercial, industrial and agricultural activities. Alexandria is divided into nine administrative districts: Al-Montazah, Al-Montazah, Sharq, Downtown, West, Al-Gomrok, Al-Ajmi,
Work began on the construction of Alexandria by Alexander the Great in 332 BC by filling part of the water separating the island stretching out to the main coast called “Pharos” by the port of Atiq, and a small village called “Raktos” or “Rkoda” surrounded by other small villages In addition to the conquest of Egypt by Amr ibn al-Aas in 641, Alexandria has become famous throughout history through many landmarks such as the ancient Library of Alexandria, which had more than 700,000 volumes, and the beacon of Alexandria, which was considered one of the seven wonders of the world That is because of its massive height of about 120 meters. This lighthouse remained in place until it was destroyed by a powerful earthquake in 1307.
Historians believe that Alexander’s choice of the city of Alexandria to be the capital of his state was guided by the guidance of his spiritual mentor Homer in the epic of Odyssey, where the son of Odysseus, King of Ithaca, went to Minelaeus, the king of Sparta, asking him if he knew anything about his father’s fate Disappeared, and Minelaeus spoke about the horrors of war and the courage of the king of Ithaca and his lost army, and that after the fatigue of their armies, they reached the shores of Egypt, on the island of Pharos, and there as the king of Sparta says “Artuena of Kawther this country under which rivers flow.”

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